Healthcare organizations in the UK and the USA face a growing tide of regulation, accreditation, inspection and external review, aimed at improving their performance. In the USA, over three decades of healthcare regulation by state and federal government and by non-governmental agencies have created a complex, costly and overlapping network of oversight arrangements for healthcare organizations. In the UK's government run National Health Service, regulation is central to current health policy, with the creation of a host of new national agencies and inspectorates tasked with overseeing the performance of NHS hospitals and other organizations. But does regulation work? This book: explores the development and use of healthcare regulation in both countries, comparing and contrasting their experience and drawing on regulatory research in other industries and settings; offers a structured approach to analysing what regulators do and how they work; and develops principles for effective regulation, aimed at maximising the benefits of regulatory interventions and minimizing their costs.